‘In horology, a complication refers to any feature beyond hours and minutes. One of the most common types of complications are date complications.’
Watches are extremely intricate little machines, and understanding them can be complex. You may remember a previous article on our blog where we discussed some of the more basic parts of the watch: the outer components. These elements, like the crown or the pusher, are the parts of the watch that are visible to you. They allow you to perform the functions available on your watch.
However, inside your watch is a whole other world – a world of highly sophisticated precision mechanics. Later, we’ll discuss the inner components that make up your watch’s primary functions. But today, we’ll be looking at the features that make watches more than just timekeeping devices. These are called complications.
In horology, a complication refers to any feature beyond hours and minutes. Some are more elaborate while others are somewhat simpler. One of the most common types of complications are date complications. There are six key types of date complications. Here, we’ll explore each in detail, starting with the four different types of basic date complications.
Basic Date Complications
As we already shared, there are four unique kinds of basic date complications.
The first is the traditional date window, which is typically set using the crown. This display may also be referred to as an aperture or a digital date. You may remember learning about the crown and aperture in our previous article on outer components. The traditional date window shows the date displayed numerically on the dial. It’s most often located at the three o’clock position. There are also different styles of traditional date windows. One of the most common designs is called a “Casino” date display. It features numbers in alternating colours, black and red.
The second type of basic date complication is called the big date. As the name indicates, this style of display provides a much larger view of the date than the traditional date window. This helps to provide maximum legibility in more extreme conditions.
The third kind of basic date complication is the pointer date. Aptly named, the pointer date features a centre hand with an arrow or crescent that points to the date, which is located around the outer perimeter or chapter of the dial. The pointer date may also be referred to as a “bankers” date or analogue date.
The final type of basic date complication is the subsidiary dial. This feature showcases the date in a small sub dial on the watch face. When the date is housed in a subsidiary dial, it’s most often used in conjunction with a secondary complication.
The day-date complication is another variety of date display. Like the name signifies, it simply adds the day of the week to the basic date complication. The most common configuration for the day-date display features the day at the twelve o’clock position and the date at the three o’clock position. The day-date is also set using the crown. Usually, moving the crown in one direction will change the day, and the other direction will change the time. However, some watches have a different setting function. Alternatively, they feature a small button on the side of the watch case that can be adjusted with a stylus.
Triple Calendar Complication
The triple calendar complication is an extension of the day-date. It makes the traditional date display even more elaborate, informative, and functional by adding the month of the year in addition to the day of the week. Another name for the triple calendar complication is a complete calendar.
Annual Calendar Complication
The annual calendar complication is slightly more complex than the day-date or triple calendar. It showcases a complete calendar display of the day, date, and month. However, it requires minimal adjustment. The complication is designed to automatically regulate the calendar display based on 30 and 31-day months. The only time the annual calendar complication does need to be manually controlled is at the end of February.
Perpetual Calendar Complication
Date complications are often considered one of the more simplistic types of complications. However, the perpetual calendar function is one of the most sophisticated kind of date features that exists on a watch. For this reason, watches with a perpetual calendar complication are both rare and costly. Similar to an annual calendar, a perpetual calendar also displays a complete calendar with the day, date, and month. However, unlike the annual calendar, which has to be manually adjusted once each year at the end of February, the perpetual calendar accounts for the number of days each month. In addition, it accounts for the year, meaning is also adjusts for the leap year.
Equation of Time Complication
The final type of date complication is the equation of time (EOT). Taking the perpetual calendar function one step further, the EOT is the apex of calendar watches. It showcases all the same features of the perpetual calendar complication. Plus, it incorporates one more function. It not only displays the standard calendar time but also highlights the actual “solar time.”
We hope you’ve learned something new about the intricacies of the sic key types of date complications. If you’re eager to continue learning more about watch complications, be sure to visit our blog again in the coming months. We’ll continue to explore even more complex complications, like the chronograph, tourbillons, moonphases, and more.